Glossary Terms

To occupy or fill, take in by chemical or physical action.

Acetylcholine is a chemical that is found between the nerve synapses, or gaps, between nerve cells. When activated, it causes the contraction of skeletal muscles and activates glandular functions in the endocrine system.

An unwanted or harmful reaction to treatment.

A substance added to something to alter or preserve its quality.

In medicine, a drug, dietary supplement, other substance, or procedure that is used in diagnosing, screening, preventing, or treating a disease.

These are the smallest units of DNA that make up the genetic code. They include pyridine (cytosine, guanine) and pyrimidine (adenosine, thymine) bases bound together in DNA strands.

Known as Garlic, (Allium sativum), a species of bulbous flowering plant in the onion genus Allium. It isused for patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and for preventing cardiovascular disease.

A type of antioxidant. Also called vitamin E.

A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.

Used in preventing, neutralizing, or counteracting acidity of the stomach.

A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, and unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures.

Used in preventing or counteracting seizures.

Commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs. They are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

The chemical name for Vitamin C.

A preparation, usually of the leaves or roots of an evergreen shrub (Withania Somnifera) native to Africa, Asia, and southern Europe that is used in herbal medicine especially as a tonic, anti-inflammatory, and adaptogen.

An isomer of carotene found in dark green and dark yellow vegetables and fruits.

A blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine.

The ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body, and have a specific effect.

A nutrient that is needed by the body to change carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids into energy and the basic materials needed for important life processes. It belongs to the group of vitamins called the vitamin B complex. Biotin is found in some foods, including egg yolk, liver, and yeast.

Abdominal distension when the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is filled with air or gas.

A drug used to prevent the formation of blood clots by hindering coagulation of the blood.

Relating to plants or botany. Obtained and used as an additive, especially valued for their therapeutic and medicinal properties.

Bowel disorders are conditions that often affect your small intestine. Some of them can also affect other parts of your digestive system, such as your large intestine. They affect how your body digests and absorbs food. They can cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as diarrhea or constipation

A typically temporary state of diminished mental capacity marked by an inability to concentrate or to think or reason clearly.

Main source of energy for the body, mainly found in plant foods. Includes sugars, starches, and dietary fibers.

The heart, blood, and blood vessels.

Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not enough. Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate is also used as an antacid to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach.

A unit of energy, often used as a measurement of the amount of energy that food provides.

An autoimmune disorder in which eating gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats) causes the immune system to damage the small intestine, making it unable to absorb nutrients. It is a genetic disease that sometimes becomes active for the first time after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection, or extreme stress. Also called sprue.

Also called "plasma membrane", a thin membrane that surrounds every living cell, delimiting the cell from the environment around it.

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

Also known as "cell injury", a variety of changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external and internal environmental changes.

Process of converting the food we eat into the air we breathe, beginning with energy sources obtained from their environment in the form of sunlight and organic food molecules.

Of, relating to, or used in chemotherapy.

A drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.

A waxy substance found in your blood. Your body needs cholesterol to build healthy cells, but high levels of cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease.

24-hour cycles that are part of the body’s internal clock, running in the background to carry out essential functions and processes.

Mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension.

The most abundant protein in the human body. Studies show consuming this protein helps improve skin elasticity.

Copper is present in the human body in small amounts and helps the body perform needed functions in the brain, blood, and more.

Lack of this mineral. Common signs and symptoms of copper deficiency include fatigue and weakness, frequent sickness, weak and brittle bones, problems with memory and learning.

Also known as "turmeric." Traditional Indian medicine for the cure of a large variety of illnesses, such as inflammation, infectious diseases, and other disorders.

Found on food and drink nutrition labels, this number tells you the percentage of the recommended dietary allowance provided by one serving of the food or drink in question.

Healing that takes longer than anticipated, given appropriate therapy.

An amount that is not enough; a shortage.

To remove a harmful substance (such as a poison or toxin) or the effect of such from the body.

The dietary sources are animal foods like meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. They are needed by the body to build and maintain its health.

The process of making food absorbable by mechanically and enzymatically breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds in the digestive tract.

The tubular passage typically extending from the mouth to the anus or cloaca that functions in digestion and absorption of food and elimination of residual waste. In most mammals, it includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus.

The set of nongenetic traits, qualities, or features that characterize a person or thing.

DNA arrays (also known as "microarrays" or "gene chips") can analyze patterns of gene expression and show how it responds to external factors.

Procedures for determining the nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment.

A genetic trait or disorder is dominant when only one copy of the gene is necessary for the trait to develop. A recessive trait or disorder develops when two copies of the gene are inherited.

The amount of medicine or other substance taken at one time or over a specific period of time.

Inducing or tending to induce sleep.

In medicine, the ability of an intervention (for example, a drug, surgery, or dietary supplement) to produce the desired beneficial effect under the best possible conditions of care, such as a clinical trial.

Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein that lends elasticity and resilience to tissues such as the arteries, lungs, tendons, skin, and ligaments. Elastic fibers have two components, one of which is encoded by the ELN gene.

Eleuthero is a small, woody shrub. People use the root of the plant to make medicine. Eleuthero is sometimes called "Siberian ginseng"

Enzymes are proteins produced by all living organisms. Enzymes create chemical reactions in the body and speed up the rate of a chemical reaction to help support life.

A class of nutrients that is vital for maintaining the body's health. They are inorganic components that play a multitude of functional roles in human cells both physiologically and biochemically.

Soluble in oils or fats, transported in the blood with carrier proteins.

The building blocks of the fat in our bodies and in the food we eat. During digestion, the body breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be absorbed into the blood. Fatty acid molecules are usually joined together in groups of three, forming a molecule called a triglyceride. Triglycerides are also made in our bodies from the carbohydrates that we eat.

Weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress.

Mostly indigestible material in food (such as legumes, whole grains, and vegetables) that stimulates the intestine to peristalsis and promotes elimination of waste from the large intestine.

A fatty oil from the bodies of various fishes (such as menhaden or sardines) that contains large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and is used as a dietary supplement and in making various products (such as cosmetics and paints).

Any of a large group of typically biologically active water-soluble plant compounds (such as the anthocyanins and flavones) that include pigments ranging in color from yellow to red to blue and occur especially in fruits, vegetables, and herbs (such as grapes, citrus fruits, peppers, and dill).

A general term for the various forms of folic acid, a B vitamin. Folate is needed to make DNA, RNA, and amino acids. It occurs naturally in foods and is found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach and turnip greens), fruits (such as citrus fruits and juices), and dried beans and peas. The synthetic (manufactured) form of folate used in supplements and fortified foods is called folic acid.

A water-soluble vitamin that is converted to a coenzyme essential to purine and thymine biosynthesis: its deficiency causes a form of anemia.

The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and the safety of our nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.

Fortified foods contain added vitamins and minerals that aren’t naturally present in them. Fortification is meant to improve people’s levels of particular nutrients and is common for foods that adults and children typically eat, such as grains, milk, and juice.

An atom or molecule with at least one unpaired electron, making it unstable and reactive. When free radicals react with certain chemicals in the body, they may interfere with the ability of cells to function normally. Antioxidants can stabilize free radicals.

Any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled or multinucleate organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they grow, comprising the mushrooms, molds, mildews, smuts, rusts, and yeasts, and classified in the kingdom Fungi or, in some classification systems, in the division Fungi (Thallophyta) of the kingdom Plantae.

An abnormal stonelike mass, usually of cholesterol, formed in the gallbladder or bile passages.

Of, relating to, or affecting the stomach and intestines.

The part of the digestive system consisting of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

A section of DNA that contains information (a code) for your cells to make a particular protein. These proteins then exert various functions throughout the body. They are grouped together on chromosomes within the nucleus of every cell.

The structure of DNA that determines the expression of a trait (phenotype).

A slow-growing plant with fleshy roots used to strengthen the immune system and help fight off stress and disease.

An antioxidant produced in cells. It’s comprised largely of three amino acids: glutamine, glycine, and cysteine. Glutathione levels in the body may be reduced by a number of factors, including poor nutrition, environmental toxins, and stress. Its levels also decline with age.

The tough, viscid, nitrogenous substance remaining when the flour of wheat or other grain is washed to remove the starch.

A thick, sweet, colourless liquid that has many industrial and medical uses, for example to make food taste sweet and in treatments for the skin.

A system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product.

Gut health refers to the physical state and physiologic function of the many parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

A hair follicle is a tunnel-shaped structure in the epidermis (outer layer) of the skin. Hair starts growing at the bottom of a hair follicle. The root of the hair is made up of protein cells and is nourished by blood from nearby blood vessels.

A process by which your body's white blood cells and the things they make protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses.

A burning discomfort behind the lower part of the sternum due especially to spasmodic reflux of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.

The oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues: occurs in reduced form (deoxyhemoglobin ) in venous blood and in combination with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin ) in arterial blood.

A plant or plant part valued for its medicinal, savory, or aromatic qualities.

Chemical substances, produced in the body by endocrine glands, that are transported by the blood to other organs to stimulate their function.

Hypromellose provides the release of a drug in a controlled manner, effectively increasing the duration of release of a drug to prolong its therapeutic effect.

Excessive pigmentation, especially of the skin.

Having little likelihood of causing an allergic response.

Not susceptible or responsive, resistant to something.

Having the immune system impaired or weakened (as by drugs or illness).

An agent (such as a drug) that suppresses the immune response.

A substance that has no medicinal effect on the body. It uses small amounts of inactive ingredients in dietary supplements, including holding the tablet together, improving the taste or smell, and increasing the stability of the key ingredient.

Not enough or good enough, insufficient for a purpose.

Tending to inflame or excite the senses.

Taking into the body by mouth.

In genetics, to receive genes that are passed from parents to their children.

Prolonged and usually abnormal inability to get enough sleep especially due to trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.

The property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.

The root of this plant has been used in traditional medicine to relieve stress, anxiety, tension, sleeplessness, and problems of menopause. The US Food and Drug Administration advises users that products containing kava may cause severe liver damage. Also called kava kava, intoxicating pepper, rauschpfeffer, tonga, and yangona. Latin name: Piper methysticum.

The ketogenic diet (or keto diet, for short) is a high fat diet based on consuming more calories from protein and fat and less from carbohydrates.

Small, hard masses that form by chemical precipitation and are found in the kidneys.

A form of a B vitamin used to treat depression, megaloblastic anemia, and renal and hepatic impairment.

A salt or ester of lactic acid.

A type of sugar found in milk and milk products.

Any of a group of phospholipids, occurring in animal and plant tissues and egg yolk, composed of units of choline, phosphoric acid, fatty acids, and glycerol.

Someone's way of living; the things that a person or particular group of people usually do defined by their manners, possessions, attitudes and so on.

Sexual drive, mental state related to sex. Influenced by: biological factors, such as testosterone and estrogen levels.

An additive that's primarily used in medication capsules. It's considered a "flow agent." It prevents the individual ingredients in a capsule from sticking to each other and the machine that creates the capsules. It helps improve the consistency and quality control of medication capsules.

A disorder caused by a diet that does not provide enough nutrition, an unbalanced diet, a digestive system that does not work properly, or a problem with absorbing or using nutrients.

The use or application of medicine.

Supplements that provide more than 100% of the daily value of the body's required vitamins and minerals.

A type of RNA involved in protein production. DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is then translated into amino acids to form proteins.

All chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism. These changes produce energy and basic materials needed for important life processes.

An oral drug, C4H11N5, used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, often in combination with repaglinide.

Also called methoxide. any derivative of methyl alcohol, as sodium methylate, CH3ONa.

A term for refined wood pulp and is used as a texturizer, an anti-caking agent, a fat substitute, an emulsifier, an extender, and a bulking agent in food production. The most common form is used in vitamin supplements or tablets.

Microbial testing is currently employed to verify environmental and equipment sanitation practices, determine microbial quality of inputs like irrigation water or compost, monitor wash water quality, screen raw products prior to harvest and test finished products prior to shipment.

A community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body.

Micronutrients, often referred to as vitamins and minerals, are vital to healthy development, disease prevention, and wellbeing.

Nutrients found in the earth or water and absorbed by plants and animals for proper nutrition. Minerals are the main component of teeth and bones, and help build cells and support nerve impulses, among other things. Examples include calcium and magnesium.

Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cell. They help turn the energy we take from food into energy that the cell can use.

To make milder or less painful.

A pill, beverage, or other substance containing more than one vitamin.

A viscid slippery secretion that is usually rich in mucins and is produced by mucous membranes which it moistens and protects.

A sudden and involuntary contraction of one or more of your muscles. If you've ever been awakened in the night or stopped in your tracks by a sudden charley horse, you know that muscle cramps can cause severe pain.

Concerning, involving, or made up of both the muscles and the bones.

Having to do with nerves and the nervous system.

Any of several chemical substances, as epinephrine or acetylcholine, that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland.

A colorless, oily, water-soluble, highly toxic, liquid alkaloid, C10H14N2, found in tobacco and valued as an insecticide.

Non-GMO means "non-genetically modified organisms". GMOs (genetically modified organisms), are novel organisms created in a laboratory using genetic modification/engineering techniques.

Unable to feel anything in a particular part of your body especially as a result of cold or anesthesia.

Chemical compounds in food that are used by the body to function properly and maintain health. Examples include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.

The study of how food affects a person’s genes and how a person’s genes affect the way the body responds to food. Nutrigenomics is used to learn more about how genes and diet together may affect a person’s health and risk of developing diseases, such as cancer. It may also help find new ways to prevent and treat disease.

Being or composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have the final double bond in the hydrocarbon chain between the third and fourth carbon atoms from the end of the molecule opposite that of the carboxyl group and that are found especially in fish, fish oils, green leafy vegetables, and some nuts and vegetable oils.

Maximizing or minimizing some function relative to some set, often representing a range of choices available in a certain situation to find the best version.

Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy.

Retinoids are a group of medications related to vitamin A. They are used to treat various inflammatory skin disorders, skin cancer, and skin ageing.

A condition that affects especially older women and is characterized by decrease in bone mass with decreased density and enlargement of bone spaces producing porosity and fragility.

A diet approximating that of hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic period and consisting mainly of preagricultural foods (such as lean meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds) and strictly limiting foods (such as dairy products, legumes, grains, potatoes, and refined sugar) which did not exist prior to the development of agricultural practices.

A large lobulated gland of vertebrates that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.

Any of various amides that are derived from two or more amino acids by combination of the amino group of one acid with the carboxyl group of another and are usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of proteins.

One whose diet includes fish but no other meat.

The expression of a trait based on the genetic makeup or genotype.

The systematic name for lecithin. It is a chemical contained in eggs, soybeans, mustard, sunflower, and other foods, and it is found naturally in the body in all cells.

An acid that contains phosphorus and is used in medicine and dentistry. It is also used to remove rust. A dilute form of phosphoric acid is used to flavor soft drinks.

Phosphate is an electrically charged particle that contains the mineral phosphorus. Phosphorus works together with the mineral calcium to build strong bones and teeth.

Phytochemicals are defined as bioactive nutrient plant chemicals in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other plant foods that may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases.

A small, cone-shaped endocrine organ in the posterior forebrain, secreting melatonin and involved in biorhythms and gonadal development.

An inactive substance or treatment that has no effect on the body and that ideally looks, smells, and tastes the same as, and is given the same way as, the active drug or treatment being tested. The effects of the active substance or treatment are compared to the effects of the placebo.

Polymorphism: A variation in the DNA that is too common to be due merely to new mutation. A polymorphism must have a frequency of at least 1% in the population. Examples of polymorphisms include the genes for sickle cell disease, thalassemia and G6PD deficiency.

Polyunsaturated fat is a type of fat that is liquid at room temperature. There are two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): omega-6 and omega-3. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in liquid vegetable oils, such as corn oil, safflower oil, and soybean oil. Omega-3 fatty acids come from plant sources—including canola oil, flaxseed, soybean oil, and walnuts—and from fish and shellfish.

Occurring or being after birth.

Postmenopause is the stage of life after you have not had a period for 12 months or longer. It is typical stage in older women.

A mineral that helps the body’s nerves to function, muscles to move, and heart to beat. Potassium helps balance some of the harmful effects of salt on blood pressure.

A person engaged in the practice of a profession, occupation, etc.

Prebiotics are a form of dietary fiber that feed the “friendly” bacteria in your gut. This allows your gut bacteria to produce nutrients for your colon cells, which leads to a healthier digestive system.

A written order from a health care provider for medicine, therapy, or tests.

Relating to the medical care given to pregnant women before their babies are born.

A (usually) dairy food or a dietary supplement containing live bacteria that replace or add to the beneficial bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract.

One of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish, or eggs. Made of amino acids, which build and repair muscles and bones to make hormones and enzymes, and are necessary for the body to grow and be strong.

Quality of life is a highly subjective measure of happiness that is an important component of many financial decisions. Factors that play a role in the quality of life vary according to personal preferences, but they often include financial security, job satisfaction, family life, health, and safety.

Any of various chiefly North American weedy composite herbs (genus Ambrosia) that produce highly allergenic pollen.

A type of unstable molecule that contains oxygen and that easily reacts with other molecules in a cell. A build up of reactive oxygen species in cells may cause damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins, and may cause cell death. Reactive oxygen species are free radicals. Also called oxygen radical.

RDA. The average amount of a nutrient a healthy person should get each day. RDAs vary by age, gender and whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. For example, the RDA for vitamin C is 80 mg a day for a pregnant teenager and 90 mg a day for men. RDAs are developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and in mammals are typically biconcave disks, which lack a nucleus and cellular organelles and are formed from nucleated cells of the red bone marrow.

A systematic plan (as of diet, therapy, or medication) especially when designed to improve and maintain the health of a patient.

The act or process of reproducing.

Having to do with breathing. The organs that are involved with breathing include the mouth, nose, throat (pharynx), voicebox (larynx), windpipe (trachea), air passages between the windpipe and lungs (bronchial tubes).

A synthetic derivative of vitamin A, the group of fat-soluble vitamins common in carrots, eggs and sweet potatoes.

A yellow crystalline compound C17H20N4O6 of the vitamin B complex that occurs both free (as in milk) and combined (as in liver) as a component of coenzymes (such as FMN) which are essential to normal metabolism.

An organic acid composed of repeating nucleotide units of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil, whose ribose components are linked by phosphodiester bonds.

Saturated fat is a type of fat that is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat dairy products (like butter, cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among other foods. Saturated fats have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.

Tobacco smoke that is exhaled by smokers or is given off by burning tobacco and is inhaled by persons nearby.

Tending to calm, moderate, or tranquilize nervousness or excitement.

A photosensitive element that occurs in both crystalline and amorphous forms, is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and is used especially in glass, semiconductor devices, and alloys.

A plant used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine. The leaves are used to make a stimulant laxative that increases the frequency of bowel movements and relieves constipation. It is widely used in over-the-counter laxatives.

A small variation in a gene, usually a single allele change, that can result in altered production of a protein. They are identified in research by their rs #. They originally occurred from mutation but are much more common in the population now.

Sodium alginate is extracted from brown algae and is the sodium salt of alginic acid. It is highly viscous and is often used as an emulsifier and a gelling agent.

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function of nerves and muscles. It also helps to keep the right balance of fluids in your body.

Susceptible of being dissolved in or as if in a liquid and especially water.

Any of a group of drugs (such as lovastatin and simvastatin) that inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol and promote the production of LDL-binding receptors in the liver resulting in a usually marked decrease in the level of LDL and a modest increase in the level of HDL circulating in blood plasma.

Sugars are a type of simple carbohydrate. They have a sweet taste. Sugars can be found naturally in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. They are also added to many foods and drinks during preparation or processing. Types of sugar include glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Your digestive system breaks down sugar into glucose. Your cells use the glucose for energy.

Stem cells can differentiate into a range of specialized cells (they are "pluripotent"). Embryonic and adult stem cells can be grown artificially and have the potential to be used for medical therapies.

A substance that increases brain activity, alertness, attention, blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and energy.

Something that completes or makes an addition.

A feeling of sickness that an individual can sense, but that cannot be measured by a healthcare professional. Examples include headache, tiredness, stomach ache, depression, and pain.

Made by combining parts to make a whole; usually having to do with substances that are artificial or manufactured.

Tinctures are concentrated herbal extracts made by soaking the bark, berries, leaves (dried or fresh), or roots from one or more plants in alcohol or vinegar.

An aggregate of cells usually of a particular kind together with their intercellular substance that form one of the structural materials of a plant or an animal.

Trans fat is a type of fat that is created when liquid oils are changed into solid fats, like shortening and some margarines. It makes them last longer without going bad. It may also be found in crackers, cookies, and snack foods. Trans fat raises your LDL (bad) cholesterol and lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.

Acting as or having the effect of a poison; poisonous.

A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Ubiquinone helps mitochondria (small structures in the cell) make energy. It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals). Ubiquinone is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in fatty fish, beef, soybeans, peanuts, and spinach.

A searchable database of the nutrient content of more than 7,000 foods in the United States. The database can be accessed online at:

Uterus, also known as the womb, where offspring are conceived and gestate in mammals.

UV radiation is part of the natural energy produced by the sun. On the electromagnetic spectrum, UV light has shorter wavelengths than visible light, so your eyes can’t see UV, but your skin can feel it.

The roots of this plant are used by some cultures as an ingredient in mild sedatives and sleep aids for nervous tension and insomnia. It is being studied in improving sleep in patients undergoing treatment for cancer.

Having to do with blood vessels.

A strict vegetarian who consumes no food (such as meat, eggs, or dairy products) that comes from animals

A person who does not eat meat : someone whose diet consists wholly of vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, and sometimes eggs or dairy products.

The state of being active and strong, with energy. The power giving continuance of life, present in all living things.

Any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism, found in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs or sometimes produced synthetically: deficiencies of vitamins produce specific disorders.

We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. Keeping track of your water intake helps make sure that you get enough. Your intake includes fluids that you drink, and fluids you get from food.

Capable of dissolving in water.

The state of feeling healthy, happy, and content. Well-being is affected by things such as physical and mental health, income, education, social support, attitude, values, stress, security, and other qualities of life.

The quality or state of being healthy in body and mind, especially as the result of deliberate effort.

A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates. Zinc is involved in the manufacture of protein (protein synthesis) and in cell division. Zinc is also a constituent of insulin, and it is involved with the sense of smell.

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